ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and 12-y incidence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and central geographic atrophy: AREDS report 30, a prospective cohort study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

John Paul SanGiovanni, Elvira Agrón, A. Dhananjayan Meleth, George F. Reed, Robert D. Sperduto, Traci E. Clemons, Emily Y. Chew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: ω-3 (n-3) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) affect processes implicated in vascular and neural retinal pathogenesis and thus may influence the risk of developing agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Objective: We investigated whether ω-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with a reduced likelihood of developing central geographic atrophy (CGA) and neovascular (NV) AMD. Design: We undertook a nested cohort study within a multicenter phase 3 clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), to study progression to advanced AMD in 1837 persons at moderateto-high risk of this condition. The AREDS was designed to assess the clinical course, prognosis, risk factors, and nutrient-based treatments of AMD and ran from November 1992 to December 2005. We obtained baseline data on ω-3 LCPUFA intake with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Trained fundus graders ascertained AMD status from annual stereoscopic color photographs by using standardized methods at a single reading center across a 12-y period. We applied multivariable repeated-measures logistic regression with the incorporation of generalized estimating equation methods, because this permitted determination of progression to outcome at each visit. Results: Participants who reported the highest ω-3 LCPUFA intake (median: 0.11% of total energy intake) were 30% less likely than their peers to develop CGA and NVAMD. The respective odds ratios were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.92; P ≤ 0.02) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.94; P ≤ 0.02). Conclusions: The 12-y incidence of CGA and NVAMD in participants at moderate-to-high risk of these outcomes was lowest for those reporting the highest consumption of ω-3 LCPUFAs. If these results are generalizable, they may guide the development of low-cost and easily implemented preventive interventions for progression to advanced AMD. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00594672.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1601-1607
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume90
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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