X-ray detection of the most extreme star-forming galaxiesãt the cosmic noon via strong lensing

Q. Daniel Wang, Carlos Garcia Diaz, Patrick S. Kamieneski, Kevin C. Harrington, Min S. Yun, Nicholas Foo, Brenda L. Frye, Eric F. Jimenez-Andrade, Daizhong Liu, James D. Lowenthal, Belén Alcalde Pampliega, Massimo Pascale, Amit Vishwas, Mark A. Gurwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hyperluminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs)ãre the most extreme star-forming systems observed in the early Universe,ãnd their properties still elude comprehensive understanding. We have undertakenã large XMM -Newton observing programme to probe the totalãccreting black hole population in three HyLIRGsãt z = 2.12, 3.25,ãnd 3.55, gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. Selected from the Planck All-Sky Survey to Analyse Gravitationally lensed Extreme Starbursts (PASSAGES), these HyLIRGs haveãpparent infrared luminosities > 10 14 L⊙. Our observãtions re vealed X-ray emission in each of them. PJ1336 + 49ãppears to be dominated by high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Remarkably, the luminosity of this non-AGN X-ray emission exceeds byã factor ofãbout 3 the value obtained by calibration with local galaxies with much lower star formation rates. This enhanced X-ray emission most likely highlights the efficacy of dynamical HMXB production within compact clusters, which isãn important mode of star formation in HyLIRGs. The remaining two (PJ0116 -24ãnd PJ1053 + 60) morphologicallyãnd spectrally exhibitã compact X-ray component inãddition to the extended non-AGN X-ray emission, indicating the presence of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). The AGNãppears to be centrally located in the reconstructed source plane images of PJ0116 -24, which manifests its star-formingãctivity predominantly withinãn extended galactic disc. In contrast, the AGN in the field of PJ1053 + 60 is projected 60 kpcãway from the extreme star-forming galaxyãnd could be ejected from it. These results underline the synergistic potential of deep X-ray observations with strong lensing for the study of high-energyãstrophysical phenomena in HyLIRGs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10584-10603
Number of pages20
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024


  • X- rays: galaxies
  • X-rays: binaries
  • galaxies: high-redshift
  • galaxies: nuclei
  • galaxies: starburst
  • gravitational lensing: strong

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'X-ray detection of the most extreme star-forming galaxiesãt the cosmic noon via strong lensing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this