Written language of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in public schools

Shirin D. Antia, Susanne Reed, Kathryn H. Kreimeyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


We obtained data on the writing of 110 deaf or hard-of-hearing students attending public schools who completed the spontaneous writing portion of the Test of Written Language. The average written quotient for the sample was in the below-average range but within 1 standard deviation of the test mean. Forty-nine percent of the sample received written quotients within or above the average range. Mean scores for the three subtests of contextual conventions, contextual language, and story construction were within the low-average range; between 55% and 68% of students scored within the average or above-average range for the subtests. Predictors of writing quotients were eligibility for free lunch, grade, degree of hearing loss and gender; however, only 18% of the variance in total writing quotients was explained by these variables. The data indicate that attention needs to be paid to the writing ability and instruction of many public-school students regardless of degree of hearing loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-255
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of deaf studies and deaf education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Speech and Hearing


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