Wish you were here: The Dutch, German, and English Yearning in Situations of Loss Short Form

Maarten C. Eisma, Eva Maria Stelzer, Lonneke I.M. Lenferink, Lindsey M. Knowles, Sarah K. Gastmeier, Maria Angelopoulou, Bettina K. Doering, Mary Frances O'Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objective(s): Yearning, a hallmark of grief disorders, relates to rumination and potentially to cognitive avoidance. We developed an 8-item short form of the only existing validated yearning measure, the Yearning in Situations of Loss Scale (YSL), to improve its validity and administration ease. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among bereaved Dutch (N = 313) and German (N = 235) community samples and an American treatment-seeking sample (N = 95). All samples completed the YSL, and community samples additionally measures of rumination, loss-related avoidance, complicated grief (CG), and depression. Results: A one-factor model provided a good fit to the YSL Short Form (YSL-SF) in the community samples. A two-factor structure (cognitive and emotional yearning)best fitted the YSL-SF in the treatment-seeking sample. YSL-SF scores correlated positively with rumination, loss-related avoidance, and with CG symptoms whilst controlling for rumination and loss-related avoidance. Conclusion: The YSL-SF appears an easy-to-administer and valid measure of yearning after bereavement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1995-2014
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020


  • emotion
  • longing
  • persistent complex bereavement disorder
  • prolonged grief disorder
  • questionnaire
  • reliability
  • scale
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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