Monitoring and control of cardiac function are critical for investigation of cardiovascular pathophysiology and developing life-saving therapies. However, chronic stimulation of the heart in freely moving small animal subjects, which offer a variety of genotypes and phenotypes, is currently difficult. Specifically, real-time control of cardiac function with high spatial and temporal resolution is currently not possible. Here, we introduce a wireless battery-free device with on-board computation for real-time cardiac control with multisite stimulation enabling optogenetic modulation of the entire rodent heart. Seamless integration of the biointerface with the heart is enabled by machine learning–guided design of ultrathin arrays. Long-term pacing, recording, and on-board computation are demonstrated in freely moving animals. This device class enables new heart failure models and offers a platform to test real-time therapeutic paradigms over chronic time scales by providing means to control cardiac function continuously over the lifetime of the subject.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Oct 2022|
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