Wireless, battery-free, fully implantable multimodal and multisite pacemakers for applications in small animal models

Philipp Gutruf, Rose T. Yin, K. Benjamin Lee, Jokubas Ausra, Jaclyn A. Brennan, Yun Qiao, Zhaoqian Xie, Roberto Peralta, Olivia Talarico, Alejandro Murillo, Sheena W. Chen, John P. Leshock, Chad R. Haney, Emily A. Waters, Changxing Zhang, Haiwen Luan, Yonggang Huang, Gregory Trachiotis, Igor R. Efimov, John A. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


Small animals support a wide range of pathological phenotypes and genotypes as versatile, affordable models for pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and for exploration of strategies in electrotherapy, gene therapy, and optogenetics. Pacing tools in such contexts are currently limited to tethered embodiments that constrain animal behaviors and experimental designs. Here, we introduce a highly miniaturized wireless energy-harvesting and digital communication electronics for thin, miniaturized pacing platforms weighing 110 mg with capabilities for subdermal implantation and tolerance to over 200,000 multiaxial cycles of strain without degradation in electrical or optical performance. Multimodal and multisite pacing in ex vivo and in vivo studies over many days demonstrate chronic stability and excellent biocompatibility. Optogenetic stimulation of cardiac cycles with in-animal control and induction of heart failure through chronic pacing serve as examples of modes of operation relevant to fundamental and applied cardiovascular research and biomedical technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5742
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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