Wireless Battery-free and Fully Implantable Organ Interfaces

Aman Bhatia, Jessica Hanna, Tucker Stuart, Kevin Albert Kasper, David Marshall Clausen, Philipp Gutruf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Advances in soft materials, miniaturized electronics, sensors, stimulators, radios, and battery-free power supplies are resulting in a new generation of fully implantable organ interfaces that leverage volumetric reduction and soft mechanics by eliminating electrochemical power storage. This device class offers the ability to provide high-fidelity readouts of physiological processes, enables stimulation, and allows control over organs to realize new therapeutic and diagnostic paradigms. Driven by seamless integration with connected infrastructure, these devices enable personalized digital medicine. Key to advances are carefully designed material, electrophysical, electrochemical, and electromagnetic systems that form implantables with mechanical properties closely matched to the target organ to deliver functionality that supports high-fidelity sensors and stimulators. The elimination of electrochemical power supplies enables control over device operation, anywhere from acute, to lifetimes matching the target subject with physical dimensions that supports imperceptible operation. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the basic building blocks of battery-free organ interfaces and related topics such as implantation, delivery, sterilization, and user acceptance. State of the art examples categorized by organ system and an outlook of interconnection and advanced strategies for computation leveraging the consistent power influx to elevate functionality of this device class over current battery-powered strategies is highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2205-2280
Number of pages76
JournalChemical Reviews
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 13 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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