Wiggle-Matched Red Cedar from a Pre-Monumental Occupation at Kincaid Mounds, Illinois, USA

Nicholas V. Kessler, Paul D. Welch, Brian M. Butler, Tamira K. Brennan, Ronald H. Towner, Gregory W.L. Hodgins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Wiggle-matched 14C dates anchored an 82-year floating cedar tree-ring chronology from the basal layer of a Mississippian Period mound to AD 1170 ± 9 (1σ) (outermost ring). Although numerical cross-matching showed preference for a temporal placement consistent with the 14C dates and visual matching, statistical scores were below critical thresholds for annual crossdating. Sapwood-corrected terminus post quem dates for the material, and their stratigraphic relationship with overlying dates, show that the earliest truncate mound construction at Mound 4 occurred after AD 1177. This date is informative for the timing of the transition of Kincaid to a major regional center and does not support an earlier hypothesis that Mound 4 was constructed in Early Kincaid times (AD 1050-1150). These results demonstrate the potential for archaeological collections to extend long tree-ring chronologies in the Midwestern U.S.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-112
Number of pages13
JournalTree-Ring Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • floating chronology
  • Hawley-Bell
  • Kincaid Mounds
  • Mx°4
  • wiggle-matching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Geology
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Palaeontology


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