What really works? An exploratory study of condom negotiation strategies

Amy G. Lam, Amy Mak, Patricia D. Lindsay, Stephen T. Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Verbal-direct strategies are assumed to be the most effective strategies in negotiating condom use. Both cultural and gender differences in communication styles suggest that individuals may negotiate condoms in ways that are not exclusively verbal and direct. This study examined the use of other forms of condom negotiations by developing an exploratory scale that distinguished strategies on how verbal and direct they were (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect). The study compared the use of negotiation strategies among Asian and White American students at a northern California university. Results indicated that although direct strategies (verbal and nonverbal) were more frequently used, condom users also employed indirect strategies (verbal and non-verbal) to negotiate condom use. Moreover, Asians used verbal-indirect strategies more than Whites. Women used nonverbal-indirect strategies more than men. HIV preventions seeking to be culturally sensitive to Asians and women may benefit from incorporating these strategies into their interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-171
Number of pages12
JournalAIDS Education and Prevention
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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