What is the association between milk and soda intake on BMI and school performance in third graders

M. Tobar, D. Taren, A. Hill, D. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Fluid intake in the form of milk and carbonated drinks (soda) have the ability to be large portion of daily energy intake and therefore could influence health and development of elementary school children. An observational study was conducted to determine what was the association between milk and soda intake on body mass index (BMI) and school performance as measured by the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) in 3096 third grade children who completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with the assistance of their primary caregiver. After adjusting for race and gender there was a significant decrease in the mean BMI of children who drank more milk. The mean BMI values consistently decreased with each quartile of milk intake even after adjusting for race and gender (F= 4.41, p < 0.001). Adjusted mean values were 17.73 for the lowest quartile of intake compared with 17.27 for the greatest quartile of intake. Results from CTBS for math, reading and total battery, indicated that scores were greatest for children in the middle two quartiles of milk consumption. However, CTBS scores consistently decreased from the first quartile of soda consumption to the last quartile of soda consumption for math, reading and the total battery score. These results suggest that (1) the intake of milk by children is not associated with obesity and (2) milk and soda consumption may not have similar associations with school performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A862
JournalFASEB Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 20 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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