Water use and crop coefficients of woody ornamentals in containers

Ursula K. Schuch, David W. Burger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Twelve species of woody ornamentals were grown in containers in Riverside and Davis, Calif., to determine plant water use and compare crop coefficients (K(c)) calculated with reference evapotranspiration (ET) from local weather stations (ET(cim)) or atmometers (ET(atm)). Water use, Kc(atm), and Kc(cim) differed by species, location, and mouth of the year. Raphiolepis indica (L.) Lindl., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait., Juniperus sabina L., and Photinia xfraseri Dress. were the highest water users in Riverside and Arctostaphylos densiflora M.S. Bak., Juniperus, Cercis occidentalis Torr., and Pittosporum used the highest amount of water in Davis, when averaged over the 20-month study period. Rhamnus californica Eschsch., Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt.) Walp., and Cercocarpus minutiflorus Abrams. were among the lowest water users in both locations. Although plant water use fluctuated considerably between individual sampling dates, the relative ranking of species water use in each location changed very little over the study period. During periods of high winds, ET(cim) may not provide an accurate reference for container crops. K(c) values fluctuated seasonally from as much as 1 to 4.7 for high water users, while values were stable for low water users and also for Buxus microphylla japonica Rehd. and E.H. Wils., an intermediate water user. During periods of low ET, especially in fall and winter, K(c) values were artificially high and failed to correspond to the plants' low water use. K(c) values for low water users seem to be useful to estimate water requirements over an extended period of time, whereas general K(c) values seem to have limited value for plants with high water demand and need to be modified for different growth stages and growing locations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)727-734
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1997


  • Atmometer
  • ET
  • ET(gage)
  • Irrigation management
  • Nursery production
  • Reference evapotranspiration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Horticulture


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