Vocalization and breathing during the second and third years of life

Carol A. Boliek, Thomas J. Hixon, Peter J. Watson, Wayne J. Morgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Vocalization and breathing were studied in 40 healthy young children, including 5 boys and 5 girls at each, of ages of 18, 24, 30, and 36 months. A variable inductance plethysmograph was used to obtain estimates of volume changes of the rib cage, abdomen, and lung, as well as estimates of selected temporal features of the breathing cycle. Results indicated that breathing behavior was influenced by height and age, but not by vocalization type or sex. Such behavior was found to be highly variable, demonstrating that these young children had multiple degrees of freedom of performance available to accomplish the aeromechanical drive required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-390
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Voice
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997


  • Breathing
  • Children
  • Development
  • Physiology
  • Vocalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Speech and Hearing
  • LPN and LVN


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