Venus Evolution Through Time: Key Science Questions, Selected Mission Concepts and Future Investigations

Thomas Widemann, Suzanne E. Smrekar, James B. Garvin, Anne Grete Straume-Lindner, Adriana C. Ocampo, Mitchell D. Schulte, Thomas Voirin, Scott Hensley, M. Darby Dyar, Jennifer L. Whitten, Daniel C. Nunes, Stephanie A. Getty, Giada N. Arney, Natasha M. Johnson, Erika Kohler, Tilman Spohn, Joseph G. O’Rourke, Colin F. Wilson, Michael J. Way, Colby OstbergFrances Westall, Dennis Höning, Seth Jacobson, Arnaud Salvador, Guillaume Avice, Doris Breuer, Lynn Carter, Martha S. Gilmore, Richard Ghail, Jörn Helbert, Paul Byrne, Alison R. Santos, Robert R. Herrick, Noam Izenberg, Emmanuel Marcq, Tobias Rolf, Matt Weller, Cedric Gillmann, Oleg Korablev, Lev Zelenyi, Ludmila Zasova, Dmitry Gorinov, Gaurav Seth, C. V.Narasimha Rao, Nilesh Desai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


In this work we discuss various selected mission concepts addressing Venus evolution through time. More specifically, we address investigations and payload instrument concepts supporting scientific goals and open questions presented in the companion articles of this volume. Also included are their related investigations (observations & modeling) and discussion of which measurements and future data products are needed to better constrain Venus’ atmosphere, climate, surface, interior and habitability evolution through time. A new fleet of Venus missions has been selected, and new mission concepts will continue to be considered for future selections. Missions under development include radar-equipped ESA-led EnVision M5 orbiter mission (European Space Agency 2021), NASA-JPL’s VERITAS orbiter mission (Smrekar et al. 2022a), NASA-GSFC’s DAVINCI entry probe/flyby mission (Garvin et al. 2022a). The data acquired with the VERITAS, DAVINCI, and EnVision from the end of this decade will fundamentally improve our understanding of the planet’s long term history, current activity and evolutionary path. We further describe future mission concepts and measurements beyond the current framework of selected missions, as well as the synergies between these mission concepts, ground-based and space-based observatories and facilities, laboratory measurements, and future algorithmic or modeling activities that pave the way for the development of a Venus program that extends into the 2040s (Wilson et al. 2022).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number56
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Atmospheric chemistry
  • Atmospheric dynamics
  • Geological processes
  • Ground and space-based observatories
  • Interior structure
  • Multispectral imager
  • Planetary system formation
  • Radio-science
  • Space instrumentation
  • Subsurface sounder
  • Surface processes
  • Synthetic aperture radar
  • Thermal state
  • Venus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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