7 Scopus citations


For more than a decade, the Four Corners Region has faced extensive and persistent drought conditions that have impacted vegetation communities and local water resources while exacerbating soil erosion. These persistent droughts threaten ecosystem services, agriculture, and livestock activities, and expose the hypersensitivity of this region to inter-annual climate variability and change. Much of the intermountainWestern United States has sparse climate and vegetation monitoring stations, making fine-scale drought assessments difficult. Remote sensing data offers the opportunity to assess the impacts of the recent droughts on vegetation productivity across these areas. Here, we propose a drought assessment approach that integrates climate and topographical data with remote sensing vegetation index time series. Multisensor Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series data from 1989 to 2010 at 5.6 km were analyzed to characterize the vegetation productivity changes and responses to the ongoing drought. A multi-linear regression was applied to metrics of vegetation productivity derived from the NDVI time series to detect vegetation productivity, an ecosystem service proxy, and changes. The results show that around 60.13% of the study area is observing a general decline of greenness (p<0.05), while 3.87% show an unexpected green up, with the remaining areas showing no consistent change. Vegetation in the area show a significant positive correlation with elevation and precipitation gradients. These results, while, confirming the region’s vegetation decline due to drought, shed further light on the future directions and challenges to the region’s already stressed ecosystems. Whereas the results provide additional insights into this isolated and vulnerable region, the drought assessment approach used in this study may be adapted for application in other regions where surface-based climate and vegetation monitoring record is spatially and temporally limited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-51
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers of Earth Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018


  • Hopi
  • Navajo Nation
  • drought
  • remote sensing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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