Validity and reliability of a shortened, revised version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)

Bruce Johnson, Robert McClure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of an existing instrument, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) (Taylor, Dawson & Fraser, 1995; Taylor, Fraser & Fisher, 1993, 1997), for providing insights into the classroom learning environments of beginning science teachers. In the first year of the study, the CLES was used with 290 upper elementary, middle, and high school science teachers and preservice teachers. As part of a larger study of the classroom environments and teaching practices of beginning science teachers, data also were gathered through classroom observations of and interviews with some of the participating teachers. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability analysis, as well as examination of each item and of participants' questions and comments about them, led to a shortened, revised version of the CLES, named the CLES 2(20). The five original scales were retained, but the number of items in each scale was reduced from six to four. The single negatively worded item was eliminated. Some of the original items were rephrased. The revised CLES was then used in the second, third and fourth years of the study. Examples of feedback based on CLES data is provided to researchers to assist them in writing teacher profiles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-80
Number of pages16
JournalLearning Environments Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2004


  • Beginning science teachers
  • Classroom learning environment
  • Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES)
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Internal consistency reliability
  • Teacher perceptions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Communication
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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