Vaccines to Prevent Coccidioidomycosis: A Gene-Deletion Mutant of Coccidioides Posadasii as a Viable Candidate for Human Trials

John N. Galgiani, Lisa F. Shubitz, Marc J. Orbach, M. Alejandra Mandel, Daniel A. Powell, Bruce S. Klein, Edward J. Robb, Mana Ohkura, Devin J. Seka, Thomas M. Tomasiak, Thomas P. Monath

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection that is reported in up to 20,000 persons per year and has an economic impact close to $1.5 billion. Natural infection virtually always confers protection from future exposure, and this suggests that a preventative vaccine strategy is likely to succeed. We here review progress toward that objective. There has been ongoing research to discover a coccidioidal vaccine over the past seven decades, including one phase III clinical trial, but for reasons of either efficacy or feasibility, a safe and effective vaccine has not yet been developed. This review first summarizes the past research to develop a coccidioidal vaccine. It then details the evidence that supports a live, gene-deletion vaccine candidate as suitable for further development as both a veterinary and a human clinical product. Finally, a plausible vaccine development plan is described which would be applicable to this vaccine candidate and also useful to other future candidates. The public health and economic impact of coccidioidomycosis fully justifies a public private partnership for vaccine development, and the development of a vaccine for this orphan disease will likely require some degree of public funding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number838
JournalJournal of Fungi
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • canines
  • cellular immunity
  • coccidioidomycosis
  • live-attenuate vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Plant Science
  • Microbiology (medical)

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