Use of provider-based complementary and alternative medicine by adult smokers in the United States: Comparison from the 2002 and 2007 NHIS survey

Eric Hamm, Myra L. Muramoto, Amy Howerter, Lysbeth Floden, Lubna Govindarajan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Subjects. A total of 54,437 (31,044 from 2002; 23,393 from 2007) adults 18 years and older.

Measures. The analysis focuses on 10 types of pbCAM, including acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation therapy, chiropractic care, energy therapy, folk medicine, hypnosis, massage, and naturopathy.

Analysis. The proportions of current smokers using any pbCAM as well as specific types of pbCAM in 2002 and 2007 are compared using SAS SURVEYLOGISTIC.

Results. Between 2002 and 2007, the percentage of recent users of any pbCAM therapy increased from 12.5% to 15.4% (p = .001). The largest increases occurred in massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Despite a decrease in the national average of current smokers (22.0% to 19.4%; p = .001), proportions of smokers within specific pbCAM disciplines remained consistent.

Conclusion. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, particularly those in chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage, represent new cohorts in the health care community to promote tobacco cessation. There is an opportunity to provide brief tobacco intervention training to CAM practitioners and engage them in public health efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco use in the United States. (Am J Health Promot 2014;29[2]:127-131.).

Purpose. To provide a snapshot of provider-based complementary and alternative medicine (pbCAM) use among adult smokers and assess the opportunity for these providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions.

Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Surveys.

Setting. Nationally representative sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-131
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number2
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Acupuncture
  • Chiropractic
  • Health focus: smoking control
  • Massage
  • Outcome measure: behavioral
  • Policy
  • Prevention research. manuscript format: research
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Research purpose: descriptive
  • Setting: national
  • Smoking
  • Strategy: skill building/behavior change
  • Study design: nonexperimental
  • Target population circumstances: education/ income level
  • Target population: Adults
  • Tobacco use cessation
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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