Upstream elements required for expression of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase genes of Toxoplasma gondii

Valerian Nakaar, David Bermudes, Kyong Ran Peck, Keith A. Joiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase is an abundant protein secreted by the obligate protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The protein has apyrase activity, degrading ATP to the di- and mono-phosphate forms. Because T. gondii is incapable of de novo synthesis of purines, it is postulated that NTPase may be used by the parasite to salvage purines from the host cell for survival and replication. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of NTP gene expression, we isolated from the virulent RH strain of T. gondii the putative promoter region of three tandemly repeated NTP genes (NTP1, 2, 3). Using deletion constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, we defined an active promoter within the first 220 bp. Sequence analysis of this region reveals the lack of a TATA box, but the promoter region is associated with a sequence which resembles an initiator element (Inr) in the NTP1 and NTP3 genes. This sequence which is similar to other Inrs known to regulate the expression of a wide variety of RNA polymerase II genes, is required for NTP expression. The NTP3 promoter contains sufficient information for developmentally regulated expression of CAT activity when the actively replicating stage tachyzoite differentiates into the dormant bradyzoite form. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-239
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 1998


  • Nucleoside triphoshate hydrolase cis-elements
  • Regulation
  • Toxoplasma gondii

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Upstream elements required for expression of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase genes of Toxoplasma gondii'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this