Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: This review discusses key issues in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding including patient preparation, sedation, hemostatic techniques, disposition, and recommended pharmacologic interventions. Recent findings: Optimal resuscitation before endoscopy and proper pharmacologic interventions after endoscopy seem to be as crucial to the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding as meticulous hemostatic techniques during the procedure. In a retrospective evaluation of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, multivariate analysis demonstrated significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in those who underwent aggressive preendoscopic resuscitation. In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, patients who received intravenous proton pump inhibitor therapy after endoscopic intervention had a significantly reduced rebleeding rate compared with their placebo control group. Summary: The algorithms described in this review can be applied clinically today and should directly lead to improved outcome. Nevertheless, even with the latest care available, results are not optimal. This review points to two major areas where we can benefit from improvement: primary hemostasis and recurrent bleeding. By pointing to these limitations, it is hoped that this review can help stimulate research in the field by applying new technologies to solve these problems. Endoscopic ultrasound, for example, could be used to help identify feeding vessels that can be treated endoscopically, thus potentially decreasing the incidence of failed primary hemostasis. Endoscopic suturing, when more fully developed, may provide a better hemostatic technique that can reduce the incidence of recurrent bleeding. It is only through these reviews that our state of knowledge in the field can be constantly reevaluated to update today's clinician with the latest knowledge and stimulate tomorrow's researchers with challenging problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-545
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Capsule endoscopy
  • Hemoclipping
  • Second-look endoscopy
  • Tissue glue
  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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