Universal trellis coded quantization

James H. Kasner, Michael W. Marcellin, Bobby R. Hunt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


A new form of trellis coded quantization based on uniform quantization thresholds and `on-the-fly' quantizer training is presented. The universal trellis coded quantization (UTCQ) technique requires neither stored codebooks nor a computationally intense codebook design algorithm. Its performance is comparable with that of fully optimized entropy-constrained trellis coded quantization (ECTCQ) for most encoding rates. The codebook and trellis geometry of UTCQ are symmetric with respect to trellis superset. This allows sources with a symmetric probability density to be encoded with a single variable-rate code. Rate allocation and quantizer modeling procedures are given for UTCQ which allow access to continuous quantization rates. An image coding application based on adaptive wavelet coefficient subblock classification, arithmetic coding, and UTCQ is presented. The excellent performance of this coder demonstrates the efficacy of UTCQ. We also present a simple scheme to improve the perceptual performance of UTCQ for certain imagery at low bitrates. This scheme has the added advantage of being applied during image decoding, without the need to reencode the original image.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1677-1687
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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