Ultralow-Profile, Electrically Small, Pattern-Reconfigurable Metamaterial-Inspired Huygens Dipole Antenna

Zhentian Wu, Ming Chun Tang, Mei Li, Richard W. Ziolkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


An ultralow-profile, electrically small, pattern-reconfigurable metamaterial-inspired Huygens dipole antenna is presented that operates near 1.5 GHz. The design incorporates two pairs of magnetic and electric near-field resonant parasitic (NFRP) elements and a reconfigurable driven element. A pair of p-i-n diodes is integrated into the driven element to enable the antenna pattern reconfigurability. By switching the ON/OFF states of the diodes, the antenna can realize two independent unidirectional endfire radiating states whose peaks point in antipodal directions and a bidirectional endfire radiating state. The measured results, in good agreement with their simulated values, demonstrate that although the antenna is electrically small (ka= 0.98) and ultralow profile (0.0026 λ0), it can realize uniform peak realized gains (RGs) of 5.4 dBi, front-to-back ratios (FTBRs) of 13.3 dB, and radiation efficiencies of (REs) 85% in its two oppositely directed endfire states, and a RG of 3.55 dBi and RE of 87% in its bidirectional endfire state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8753674
Pages (from-to)1238-1248
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Electrically small antennas (ESAs)
  • Huygens dipole antennas (HDAs)
  • metamaterial-inspired antennas
  • pattern-reconfigurable antennas
  • ultralow-profile antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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