The nature of dark matter is unknown and calls for a systematical search. For axion dark matter, such a search relies on finding feeble random noise arising from the weak coupling between dark matter and microwave haloscopes. We model such process as a quantum channel and derive the fundamental precision limit of noise sensing. An entanglement-assisted strategy based on two-mode squeezed vacuum is thereby demonstrated optimal, while the optimality of a single-mode squeezed vacuum is found limited to the lossless case. We propose a “nulling” measurement (squeezing and photon counting) to achieve the optimal performances. In terms of the scan rate, even with 20-decibel of strength, single-mode squeezing still underperforms the vacuum limit which is achieved by photon counting on vacuum input; while the two-mode squeezed vacuum provides large and close-to-optimum advantage over the vacuum limit, thus more exotic quantum resources are no longer required. Our results highlight the necessity of entanglement assistance and microwave photon counting in dark matter search.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science (miscellaneous)
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Computational Theory and Mathematics