Two useful reformulations of the hazard ratio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The hazard ratio is a standard summary for comparing survival curves yet hazard ratios are often difficult for scientists and clinicians to interpret. Insight into the interpretation of hazard ratios is obtained by relating hazard ratios to the maximum difference and an average difference between survival probabilities. These reformulations of the hazard ratio are useful in classroom discussions of survival analysis and when discussing analyses with scientists and clinicians. Large-sample distribution theory is provided for these reformulations of the hazard ratio. Two examples are used to illustrate the ideas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-41
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Statistician
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cox model
  • Proportional hazards model
  • Survival analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • General Mathematics
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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