Tumor necrosis factor and monocytes are released during hemorrhagic shock

Peter Rhee, Kenneth Waxman, Lisa Clark, C. Jeffrey Kaupke, N. D. Vaziri, Gail Tominaga, Gianna Scannell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key mediator involved in many physiologic processes including immunity, inflammation, and metabolism. A relationship between TNF and hemorrhagic shock has not been clearly demonstrated. To help understand the role of TNF in hemorrhagic shock we developed a hemorrhagic shock model to measure TNF and monocyte levels during hemorrhage and resuscitation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and subjected to a 50% blood loss (30 ml/kg) over 2 min and left in shock for 58 min. The animals were then resuscitated with two times blood loss (60 mukg) using lactated Ringers over 1 h. This model results in 75% mortality within 3 days (LD 75). Blood samples (2 ml) were obtained at intervals during shock and resuscitation, and assayed for TNF concentrations and white blood cell counts. Despite a marked fall in total leukocytes (24 600 pre-hemorrhage to 11 300 post-hemorrhage, P < 0.005), monocytes increased in percentage and in total count. Blood levels of TNF were initially undetectable but rose within 10 min after hemorrhage, peaked at 30 min after hemorrhage, and then became undetectable during resuscitation. In this model, macrophages and TNF are released into the circulation after hemorrhagic shock. TNF may play a role as a mediator in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-255
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • cytokines
  • hemorrhage
  • macrophages
  • mediators
  • shock
  • tumor necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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