Trends in post-mastectomy reconstruction: A SEER database analysis

Julie E. Lang, Danielle E. Summers, Haiyan Cui, Joseph N. Carey, Rebecca K. Viscusi, Craig A. Hurst, Amy L. Waer, Michele L.B. Ley, Stephen F. Sener, Aparna Vijayasekaran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Background and Objectives This study was performed to investigate recent trends and factors associated with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using a large population-based registry. We hypothesized that rates of IBR have increased since passage of the Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998. Methods The SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database was used to evaluate Stage I-III breast cancer (BC) patients who underwent total mastectomy from 1998 to 2008. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to study predictors of IBR. Results Of 112,348 patients with BC treated by mastectomy 18,001 (16%) had IBR. Rates of IBR increased significantly from 1998 to 2008 (P < 0.0001). Use of IBR significantly decreased as patient age increased (P < 0.0001), as stage increased (P < 0.0001), and as the number of positive lymph nodes increased (P < 0.0001). Estrogen receptor+/progesterone receptor+ (ER+/PR+) patients had significantly higher IBR rates than ER-/PR-patients (P < 0.0001). IBR was used in 3,615 of 25,823 (14.0%) of patients having post-mastectomy radiation (XRT) and in 14,188 of 86,513 (16.4%) of those not having XRT (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The utilization of IBR has increased significantly over the last decade. IBR was found to be significantly associated with age, race, geographical region, stage, ER, grade, LN status, and XRT (P < 0.0001).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-168
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Surgical Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2013


  • SEER
  • breast cancer
  • immediate breast reconstruction
  • mastectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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