Trends in civilian penetrating brain injury: A review of 26,871 patients

David J. Skarupa, Muhammad Khan, Albert Hsu, Firas G. Madbak, David J. Ebler, Brian Yorkgitis, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Dunbar Alcindor, Bellal Joseph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Introduction: The aim of our study is to analyze the 5 years' trends, mortality rate, and factors that influence mortality after civilian penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI). Methods: We performed a 5-year-analysis of all trauma patients diagnosed with pTBI in the TQIP. Our outcome measures were trends of pTBI. Results: A total of 26,871 had penetrating brain injury over the 5-year period. Mean age was 36.2 ± 18 years. Overall 55% of the patients had severe TBI and mortality rate was 43.8%. There was an increase in the rate of pTBI from 3042/100,000 (2010) to 7578/100,000 trauma admissions (2014) (p < 0.001). The mortality rate has increased from 35% (2010) to 48% (2011) (p < 0.001) followed by a linear decrease in mortality to 40% (2014). Independent predictors of mortality were age, pre-hospital intubation, suicide attempt, and craniotomy/craniectomy. Conclusions: Incidence and mortality for patients who are brought to hospitals following pTBI have gradually increased over the five-year period. Self-inflicted injury and prehospital intubation were the two most significant predictors of mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-260
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2019


  • Gunshot
  • Penetrating injury
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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