Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

Xuan Liu, Pengzhu Zhang, Xin Li, Hsinchun Chen, Yan Dang, Catherine Larson, Mihail C. Roco, Xianwen Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1845-1866
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Bibliographic analysis
  • Citation analysis of articles and patents
  • Information visualization
  • International
  • Nanoscience
  • Nanotechnology
  • Research and development
  • Self-organizing maps
  • Technological innovation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Chemistry
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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