Travel recommendation via fusing multi-auxiliary information into matrix factorization

Lei Chen, Zhiang Wu, Jie Cao, Guixiang Zhu, Yong Ge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


As an e-commerce feature, the personalized recommendation is invariably highly-valued by both consumers and merchants. The e-tourism has become one of the hottest industries with the adoption of recommendation systems. Several lines of evidence have confirmed the travel-product recommendation is quite different from traditional recommendations. Travel products are usually browsed and purchased relatively infrequently compared with other traditional products (e.g., books and food), which gives rise to the extreme sparsity of travel data. Meanwhile, the choice of a suitable travel product is affected by an army of factors such as departure, destination, and financial and time budgets. To address these challenging problems, in this article, we propose a Probabilistic Matrix Factorization with Multi-Auxiliary Information (PMF-MAI) model in the context of the travel-product recommendation. In particular, PMF-MAI is able to fuse the probabilistic matrix factorization on the user-item interaction matrix with the linear regression on a suite of features constructed by the multiple auxiliary information. In order to fit the sparse data, PMF-MAI is built by a whole-data based learning approach that utilizes unobserved data to increase the coupling between probabilistic matrix factorization and linear regression. Extensive experiments are conducted on a real-world dataset provided by a large tourism e-commerce company. PMF-MAI shows an overwhelming superiority over all competitive baselines on the recommendation performance. Also, the importance of features is examined to reveal the crucial auxiliary information having a great impact on the adoption of travel products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number22
JournalACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 10 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Linear regression
  • Multiple auxiliary information
  • Probabilistic matrix factorization
  • Recommender systems
  • Travel product recommendation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Artificial Intelligence


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