Traumatic Femoral Artery Injuries and Predictors of Compartment Syndrome: A Nationwide Analysis

Samer Asmar, Letitia Bible, Mohamad Chehab, Omar Obaid, Lourdes Castanon, Marita Yaghi, Michael Ditillo, Bellal Joseph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The femoral artery is commonly injured following lower extremity trauma. If not identified early and addressed properly, it can lead to compartment syndrome (CS) and limb amputation. The aim of this study is to examine traumatic femoral artery injuries and identify risk factors for the development of lower extremity CS. Methods: Adult (≥18 years) patients who presented with traumatic femoral artery injuries were identified in the Trauma Quality Improvement Program 2017. Patients were stratified into two groups, those with evidence of lower extremity compartment syndrome (CS) and those without CS (NCS), for comparison. Multivariate regression analysis was performed. Results: A total of 1,297 adult trauma patients with femoral artery injury were identified. Mean age was 36 ± 15 y, 86% were male, and 68% had penetrating injuries. Median extremity abbreviated injury scale (AIS) was 3 [3,4], and median injury severity score (ISS) was 27 [22-41]. 68 (5.2%) patients were diagnosed with CS of the lower extremity, 66 (97.1%) of those patients underwent fasciotomy and one (1.5%) patient eventually had an amputation. On multivariate regression analysis, concomitant femoral vein, femoral nerve, and popliteal artery injuries and early need for blood transfusions were independent risk factors for the development of CS (OR 3.1, 3.8, 4.3, and 2.5 respectively). Conclusions: CS following traumatic femoral artery injury is a relatively common finding. Physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion and should consider prophylactic fasciotomy in the setting of combined femoral vein and nerve injuries, combined popliteal artery injury, and multiple blood transfusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)159-167
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Volume265
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • Compartment Syndrome
  • Fasciotomy
  • Femoral Artery
  • Predictors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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