The brain undergoes two aging programs: chronological and endocrinological. This is particularly evident in the female brain, which undergoes programs of aging associated with reproductive competency. Comprehensive understanding of the dynamic metabolic and neuroinflammatory aging process in the female brain can illuminate windows of opportunities to promote healthy brain aging. Bioenergetic crisis and chronic low-grade inflammation are hallmarks of brain aging and menopause and have been implicated as a unifying factor causally connecting genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss metabolic phenotypes of pre-menopausal, peri-menopausal, and post-menopausal aging and their consequent impact on the neuroinflammatory profile during each transition state. A critical aspect of the aging process is the dynamic metabolic neuro-inflammatory profiles that emerge during chronological and endocrinological aging. These dynamic systems of biology are relevant to multiple age-associated neurodegenerative diseases and provide a therapeutic framework for prevention and delay of neurodegenerative diseases of aging. While these findings are based on investigations of the female brain, they have a broader fundamental systems of biology strategy for investigating the aging male brain. Molecular characterization of alterations in fuel utilization and neuroinflammatory mechanisms during these neuro-endocrine transition states can inform therapeutic strategies to mitigate the risk of Alzheimer's disease in women. We further discuss a precision hormone replacement therapy approach to target symptom profiles during endocrine and chronological aging to reduce risk for age-related neurodegenerative diseases.
- Neurodegenerative disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)