We analytically study the linear response of a near-extremal Kerr black hole to external scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational field perturbations. We show that the energy density, electromagnetic field strength, and tidal force experienced by infalling observers exhibit transient growth near the horizon. The growth lasts arbitrarily long in the extremal limit, reproducing the horizon instability of extremal Kerr. We explain these results in terms of near-horizon geometry and discuss potential astrophysical implications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)