Transforming growth factor beta in cardiovascular development and function

Mohamad Azhar, Jo El J. Schultz, Ingrid Grupp, Gerald W. Dorn, Pierre Meneton, Daniel G.M. Molin, Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot, Thomas Doetschman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

194 Scopus citations


Transforming growth factor betas (TGFβs) are pleiotropic cytokines involved in many biological processes. Genetic engineering and tissue explanation studies have revealed specific non-overlapping roles for TGFβ ligands and their signaling molecules in development and in normal function of the cardiovascular system in the adult. In the embryo, TGFβs appear to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transformations (EMT) during endocardial cushion formation, and in epicardial epithelial-mesenchymal transformations essential for coronary vasculature, ventricular myocardial development and compaction. In the adult, TGFβs are involved in cardiac hypertrophy, vascular remodeling and regulation of the renal renin-angiotensin system. The evidence for TGFβ activities during cardiovascular development and physiologic function will be given and areas which need further investigation will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-407
Number of pages17
JournalCytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2003


  • Development
  • Heart
  • Physiology
  • TGFβ
  • Vasculature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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