Transfer-Appropriate Processing for Implicit and Explicit Memory

Peter Graf, Lee Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Scopus citations


To examine how feature-specific pattern-analyzing processes affect implicit and explicit memory test performance, words were displayed for study and testing in 2 visually distinct formats: upside down vs. normal for Experiment 1, upside down vs. backward for Experiment 2, and in Applesoft pudgy vs. shadow typeface for Experiment 3. Implicit and explicit memory performance was assessed with word identification and recognition tests, respectively. The results showed larger priming effects when the study and test formats were the same rather than different, but only in some experimental conditions. The discussion focuses on how skill and processing strategies contribute to format-specific effects on implicit and explicit memory test performance, and it outlines a theoretical account based on the idea of transfer-appropriate processing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)978-992
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language


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