Transactivation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes following transfer of B regulatory genes into maize tissues

S. A. Goff, T. M. Klein, B. A. Roth, M. E. Fromm, K. C. Cone, J. P. Radicella, V. L. Chandler

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194 Scopus citations


The C1, B and R genes regulating the maize anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway encode tissue-specific regulatory proteins with similarities to transcriptional activators. The C1 and R regulatory genes are usually responsible for pigmentation of seed tissues, and the B-Peru allele of B, but not the B-I allele, can substitute for R function in the seed. In this study, members of the B family of regulatory genes were delivered to intact maize tissues by high velocity microprojectiles. In colorless r aleurones or embryos, the introduction of the B-Peru genomic clone or the expressed cDNAs of B-Peru or B-I resulted in anthocyanin-producing cells. Luciferase produced from the Bronze1 anthocyanin structural gene promoter was induced 100-fold when co-introduced with the expressed B-Peru or B-I cDNAs. This quantitative transactivation assay demonstrates that the proteins encoded by these two B alleles are equally able to transactivate the Bronze1 promoter. Analogous results were obtained using embryogenic callus cells. These observations suggest that one major contribution towards tissue-specific anthocyanine synthesis controlled by the various alleles of the B and R genes is the differential expression of functionally similar proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2517-2522
Number of pages6
JournalEMBO Journal
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1990


  • anthocyanine biosynthesis
  • microprojectile bombardment
  • regulatory genes
  • transactivation
  • transcription factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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