Trabecular evidence for a human-like gait in Australopithecus africanus

Meir M. Barak, Daniel E. Lieberman, David Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Anna G. Warrener, Jean Jacques Hublin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Although the earliest known hominins were apparently upright bipeds, there has been mixed evidence whether particular species of hominins including those in the genus Australopithecus walked with relatively extended hips, knees and ankles like modern humans, or with more flexed lower limb joints like apes when bipedal. Here we demonstrate in chimpanzees and humans a highly predictable and sensitive relationship between the orientation of the ankle joint during loading and the principal orientation of trabecular bone struts in the distal tibia that function to withstand compressive forces within the joint. Analyses of the orientation of these struts using microCT scans in a sample of fossil tibiae from the site of Sterkfontein, of which two are assigned to Australopithecus africanus, indicate that these hominins primarily loaded their ankles in a relatively extended posture like modern humans and unlike chimpanzees. In other respects, however, trabecular properties in Au africanus are distinctive, with values that mostly fall between those of chimpanzees and humans. These results indicate that Au. africanus, like Homo, walked with an efficient, extended lower limb.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere77687
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 5 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Trabecular evidence for a human-like gait in Australopithecus africanus'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this