Toxoplasma gondii ADP-ribosylation Factor 1 Mediates Enhanced Release of Constitutively Secreted Dense Granule Proteins

Andreina Liendo, Timothy T. Stedman, Huân M. Ngô, Sudha Chaturvedi, Heinrich C. Hoppe, Keith A. Joiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Toxoplasma gondii dense granules are morphologically similar to dense matrix granules in specialized secretory cells, yet are secreted in a constitutive, calcium-independent fashion. We previously demonstrated that secretion of dense granule proteins in permeabilized parasites was augmented by the non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue guanosine 5′-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPγS) (Chaturvedi, S., Qi, H., Coleman, D. L., Hanson, P., Rodriguez, A., and Joiner, K. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2424-2431). As now demonstrated by pharmacological and electron microscopic approaches, GTPγS enhanced release of dense granule proteins in the permeabilized cell system. To investigate the role of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in this process, a cDNA encoding T. gondii ARF1 (TgARF1) was isolated. Endogenous and transgenic TgARF1 localized to the Golgi of T. gondii, but not to dense granules. An epitope-tagged mutant of TgARF1 predicted to be impaired in GTP hydrolysis (Q71L) partially dispersed the Golgi signal, with localization to scattered vesicles, whereas a mutant impaired in nucleotide binding (T31N) was cytosolic in location. Both mutants caused partial dispersion of a Golgi/trans-Golgi network marker. TgARF1 mutants inhibited delivery of the secretory reporter, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase, to dense granules, precluding an in vivo assessment of the role of TgARF1 in release of intact dense granules. To circumvent this limitation, recombinant TgARF1 was purified using two separate approaches, and used in the permeabilized cell assay. TgARF1 protein purified on a Cibacron G3 column and able to bind GTP stimulated dense granule secretion in the permeabilized cell secretion assay. These results are the first to show that ARF1 can augment release of constitutively secreted vesicles at the target membrane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18272-18281
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number21
StatePublished - Jan 25 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Toxoplasma gondii ADP-ribosylation Factor 1 Mediates Enhanced Release of Constitutively Secreted Dense Granule Proteins'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this