Toxicologic Information Resources for Reptile Envenomations

Jude McNally, Keith Boesen, Leslie Boyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The United States is the largest importer of reptiles in the world, with an estimated 1.5 to 2.0 million households keeping one or more reptiles. Snakes account for about 11% of these imports and it has been estimated that as many as 9% of these reptiles are venomous. Envenomations by nonindigenous venomous species are a rare but often serious medical emergency. Bites may occur during the care and handling of legitimate collections found in universities, zoos, or museums. The other predominant source of exotic envenomation is from amateur collectors participating in importation, propagation, and trade of non-native species. This article provides toxicologic information resources for snake envenomations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-401
Number of pages13
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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