Toward the development of miniaturized imaging systems for detection of pre-cancer

Michael R. Descour, Ari H.O. Kärkkäinen, Jeremy D. Rogers, Chen Liang, Ronald S. Weinstein, Juha T. Rantala, Bahattin Kilic, Erdogan Madenci, Rebecca R. Richards-Kortum, Eric V. Anslyn, Russell D. Dupuis, Randy J. Schul, Christi G. Willison, Chris P. Tigges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


In this paper, we describe the progress toward the development of miniaturized imaging systems with applications in medical imaging, and specifically, detection of pre-cancer. The focus of the article is a miniature, optical-sectioning, fluorescence microscope. The miniature microscope is constructed from lithographically printed optics and assembled using a bulk micro-machined silicon microoptical table. Optical elements have been printed in a negative tone hybrid glass to a maximum depth of 59 μm and an rms surface roughness between 10-45 nm, fulfilling the requirements of the miniature microscope. Test optical elements have been assembled using silicon-spring equipped mounting slots. The design of silicon springs is presented in this paper. Optical elements can be assembled within the tolerances of an NA = 0.4 miniature microscope objective, confirming the concept of simple, zero-alignment assembly.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)122-130
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2002


  • Biomedical imaging
  • Biomedical microscopy
  • Hybrid sol-gel materials
  • Microassembly
  • Microoptics
  • Photolithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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