Total force fitness in units part 1: Military demand-resource model

Mark J. Bates, Jon J. Fallesen, Wesley S. Huey, Gary A. Packard, Diane M. Ryan, C. Shawn Burke, David G. Smith, Daniel J. Watola, Evette D. Pinder, Todd M. Yosick, Armando X. Estrada, Loring Crepeau, Stephen V. Bowles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The military unit is a critical center of gravity in the military's efforts to enhance resilience and the health of the force. The purpose of this article is to augment the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) guidance with a framework of TFF in units. The framework is based on a Military Demand-Resource model that highlights the dynamic interactions across demands, resources, and outcomes. A joint team of subject-matter experts identified key variables representing unit fitness demands, resources, and outcomes. The resulting framework informs and supports leaders, support agencies, and enterprise efforts to strengthen TFF in units by (1) identifying TFF unit variables aligned with current evidence and operational practices, (2) standardizing communication about TFF in units across the Department of Defense enterprise in a variety of military organizational contexts, (3) improving current resources including evidence-based actions for leaders, (4) identifying and addressing of gaps, and (5) directing future research for enhancing TFF in units. These goals are intended to inform and enhance Service efforts to develop Service-specific TFF models, as well as provide the conceptual foundation for a follow-on article about TFF metrics for units.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1164-1182
Number of pages19
JournalMilitary medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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