Total cost of ownership (TOC): An approach for estimating UMAS costs

Ricardo Valerdi, Thomas R. Ryan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


This chapter provides a method that attempts to account for how cost estimating for autonomy is different than current methodologies and suggests ways it can be addressed through the integration and adaptation of existing cost models. When designing a product the recommended practice is to consider design decisions and their impact throughout the life cycle. For purposes of discussing the realm of unmanned autonomous systems (UMAS), the chapter focuses on two life cycle standards, namely department of defense (DoD) 5000 and ISO/IEC 15288 Systems Engineering System Life Cycle Processes. It explores various types of costs into their respective phases to demonstrate total cost of ownership. The life cycle models help structure cost estimates, existing cost estimation methods, product work breakdown structure (P-WBS), and parametric models. These led to a case study that described an army unmanned vehicle and a recommended approach for estimating the per unit life cycle cost.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOperations Research for Unmanned Systems
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781118918937
ISBN (Print)9781118918944
StatePublished - Mar 5 2016


  • Cost drivers
  • Cost estimation methods
  • Life cycle models
  • Parametric cost models
  • Product work breakdown structure
  • Unmanned autonomous systems
  • Unmanned ground vehicle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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