Topological structures for 4-dimensional geographic information systems

Nicholas W.J. Hazelton, Lisa Marie Bennett, Joanna Masel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The purpose of this paper is to extend the framework for binary topological interactions to spaces up to 4-D. It includes descriptions of the various interactions between objects of various dimensions in various spaces, covering all interactions between all types of objects up to 4-D, in spaces up to 4-D. The need for topology in GIS is briefly discussed, in the instance of a vector-based 4-D GIS. The requirements for spatio-temporal indexing of data in a 4-D GIS are discussed briefly, together with the current dearth of information on query types and temporal analysis needs. This absence limits how well system designers can optimize the indexing, and consequently performance, of a 4-D GIS. This information will become available only after systems are in regular use and their modes of use analyzed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-237
Number of pages11
JournalComputers, Environment and Urban Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Urban Studies


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