Tonic Serotonin Measurements In Vivo Using N-Shaped Multiple Cyclic Square Wave Voltammetry

Hojin Shin, Abhinav Goyal, J. Hudson Barnett, Aaron E. Rusheen, Jason Yuen, Rohan Jha, Sang Mun Hwang, Yumin Kang, Cheonho Park, Hyun U. Cho, Charles D. Blaha, Kevin E. Bennet, Yoonbae Oh, Michael L. Heien, Dong Pyo Jang, Kendall H. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Here, we present the development of a novel voltammetric technique, N-shaped multiple cyclic square wave voltammetry (N-MCSWV) and its application in vivo. It allows quantitative measurements of tonic extracellular levels of serotonin in vivo with mitigated fouling effects. N-MCSWV enriches the electrochemical information by generating high dimensional voltammograms, which enables high sensitivity and selectivity against 5-hydroindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), histamine, ascorbic acid, norepinephrine, adenosine, and pH. Using N-MCSWV, in combination with PEDOT:Nafion-coated carbon fiber microelectrodes, a tonic serotonin concentration of 52 ± 5.8 nM (n = 20 rats, ±SEM) was determined in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of urethane-anesthetized rats. Pharmacological challenges with dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic synaptic reuptake inhibitors supported the ability of N-MCSWV to selectively detect tonic serotonin levels in vivo. Overall, N-MCSWV is a novel voltammetric technique for analytical quantification of serotonin. It offers continuous monitoring of changes in tonic serotonin concentrations in the brain to further our understanding of the role of serotonin in normal behaviors and psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16987-16994
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number51
StatePublished - Dec 28 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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