Tobacco brief intervention training for chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage practitioners: Protocol for the CAM reach study

Myra L. Muramoto, Amy Howerter, Eva Matthews, Lysbeth Floden, Judith Gordon, Mark Nichter, James Cunningham, Cheryl Ritenbaugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Effective tobacco cessation aids are widely available, yet underutilized. Tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) increase quit rates. However, BI training has focused on conventional medical providers, overlooking other health practitioners with regular contact with tobacco users. The 2007 National Health Interview Survey found that approximately 20% of those who use provider-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are tobacco users. Thus, CAM practitioners potentially represent a large, untapped community resource for promoting tobacco cessation and use of effective cessation aids. Existing BI training is not well suited for CAM practitioners' background and practice patterns, because it assumes a conventional biomedical foundation of knowledge and philosophical approaches to health, healing and the patient-practitioner relationship. There is a pressing need to develop and test the effectiveness of BI training that is both grounded in Public Health Service (PHS) Guidelines for tobacco dependence treatment and that is relevant and appropriate for CAM practitioners. Methods/Design: The CAM Reach (CAMR) intervention is a tobacco cessation BI training and office system intervention tailored specifically for chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. The CAMR study utilizes a single group one-way crossover design to examine the CAMR intervention's impact on CAM practitioners' tobacco-related practice behaviors. Primary outcomes included CAM practitioners' self-reported conduct of tobacco use screening and BIs. Secondary outcomes include tobacco using patients' readiness to quit, quit attempts, use of guideline-based treatments, and quit rates and also non-tobacco-using patients' actions to help someone else quit. Discussion: CAM practitioners provide care to significant numbers of tobacco users. Their practice patterns and philosophical approaches to health and healing are well suited for providing BIs. The CAMR study is examining the impact of the CAMR intervention on practitioners' tobacco-related practice behaviors, CAM patient behaviors, and documenting factors important to the conduct of practice-based research in real-world CAM practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number510
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 18 2014


  • Acupuncture
  • Brief intervention
  • Chiropractic
  • Communication
  • Longitudinal study
  • Massage therapy
  • Qualitative study
  • System intervention
  • Tobacco cessation
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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