BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. Others have shown that delays in massive transfusion cooler arrival increase mortality, while prehospital blood product resuscitation can reduce mortality. Our objective was to evaluate if time to resuscitation initiation impacts mortality. METHODS We combined data from the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial in which patients received prehospital plasma or standard care and the Study of Tranexamic Acid during Air and ground Medical Prehospital transport (STAAMP) trial in which patients received prehospital tranexamic acid or placebo. We evaluated the time to early resuscitative intervention (TERI) as time from emergency medical services arrival to packed red blood cells, plasma, or tranexamic acid initiation in the field or within 90 minutes of trauma center arrival. For patients not receiving an early resuscitative intervention, the TERI was calculated based on trauma center arrival as earliest opportunity to receive a resuscitative intervention and were propensity matched to those that did to account for selection bias. Mixed-effects logistic regression assessed the association of 30-day and 24-hour mortality with TERI adjusting for confounders. We also evaluated a subgroup of only patients receiving an early resuscitative intervention as defined above. RESULTS Among the 1,504 propensity-matched patients, every 1-minute delay in TERI was associated with 2% increase in the odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.020; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006-1.033; p < 0.01) and 1.5% increase in odds of 24-hour mortality (aOR, 1.015; 95% CI, 1.001-1.029; p = 0.03). Among the 799 patients receiving an early resuscitative intervention, every 1-minute increase in TERI was associated with a 2% increase in the odds of 30-day mortality (aOR, 1.021; 95% CI, 1.005-1.038; p = 0.01) and 24-hour mortality (aOR, 1.023; 95% CI, 1.005-1.042; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION Time to early resuscitative intervention is associated with morality in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. Bleeding patients need resuscitation initiated early, whether at the trauma center in systems with short prehospital times or in the field when prehospital time is prolonged. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic/Care Management; Level III.
- Emergency medical services
- tranexamic acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine