Time-pressure perception and decision making

Lisa D Ordonez, Lehman Benson, Andrea Pittarello

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

25 Scopus citations


Time can be perceived as a resource and contextual factor in the light of time constraints and time pressure. Time constraints are often internally or externally imposed deadlines. The chapter provides a general review of the field of time constraints and decision making, focusing in particular on research published since the mid-2000s. It then presents a comparison of three different models of time pressure perception, namely, ratio model, difference model, and relative difference model. The relative difference model was the best fit for aggregate and individual-level data when participants rated how much time pressure they would feel when facing a task described by the time required and the time available to complete a task. The most recent research in the field has found interesting effects in new application areas of consumer behavior, negotiation, interactive decision making, and ethical decision making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making
Number of pages24
ISBN (Electronic)9781118468333
ISBN (Print)9781118468395
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Consumer behavior
  • Economic decision making
  • Ethical decision making
  • Interactive decision making
  • Relative difference model
  • Time constraints
  • Time pressure perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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