Three-Dimensional Carpal Arch Morphology Using Robot-Assisted Ultrasonography

Rakshit Shah, Zong Ming Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective: The morphology of the carpal arch implicates the available space for the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. The purposes of this study were to 1) reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) carpal arch by robot-assisted ultrasonography with a linear array transducer using cadaveric hands, and 2) investigate the 3D morphological properties of the carpal arch. Methods: An ultrasound probe with two-dimensional (2D) linear array was integrated on a robotic arm and maneuvered over the cadaveric carpal tunnels to scan the entire transverse carpal ligament and its osseous attachments to carpal bones. The acquired series of 2D ultrasound images together with robot positioning were utilized to reconstruct the 3D carpal arch for morphometric analyses. Results: Total carpal arch volume was 1099.4 ± 163.2 mm3 with the distal, middle, and proximal regions contributing 18.2 ± 1.5%, 32.7 ± 1.2%, and 49.1 ± 2.3%, respectively. The ligament surface area was 420.1 ± 63.9 mm2. The carpal arch width, height, curvature, length, area, and palmar bowing index progressively increased from the distal to proximal locations within the tunnel (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The incorporation of the robot technology with the ultrasound system advanced the applications of traditional 2D ultrasound imaging for a 3D carpal arch reconstruction, allowing for comprehensive morphological assessment of the carpal arch. Significance: The developed workflow can be used for the reconstruction and analysis of other anatomical features in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)894-898
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • 3D reconstruction
  • Ultrasound imaging
  • carpal arch
  • morphometry
  • robot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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