Third-party intermediaries and negotiated settlements, 1946-2000

Derrick V. Frazier, William J. Dixon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Past studies regarding the success and/or failure of conflict management activities have brought about a wide range of results. In this paper we attempt to gain more definitive conclusions about effectiveness by accomplishing two tasks. First, using a basic theoretical framework we identify expectations of efficacy as they relate to differences between states, coalitions, and IGOs. Second, we also examine the utility of different conflict management techniques in an effort to place in greater perspective the effectiveness of mediation, the most utilized technique of third party intermediaries. Using a new dataset on third-party intermediary behavior in militarized disputes from 1946 to 2000, we find that while all conflict managers are useful in assisting belligerents in reaching a negotiated settlement, IGOs are the most effective. Additionally, while mediation is an effective technique to produce settlements, military intermediary actions, such as peacekeeping, are much more useful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-408
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Interactions
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006


  • Conflict management
  • Mediation
  • Negotiated settlement
  • Peacekeeping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Political Science and International Relations


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