In this paper, the thermal response of metal-ceramic Ti-6Al-4V/TiB2 functionally graded composite structural panels is studied and compared against a Ti-6Al-4V structural panel with an Exelis Acusil® II syntactic foam thermal protection system. Structural panels are subjected to thermal and mechanical loads resulting from hypersonic flight over a representative trajectory. Mechanical loads are the by-product of aggressive maneuvering at high air speeds and angles of attack. Thermal loads as a result of aerodynamic heating are applied to the material systems as laminar, turbulent and transitional heat flux on the outer surface. Transitional heat fluxes are used to evaluate the effectiveness of Ti-6Al-4V/TiB2 graded in two principal directions, e.g., through-thickness and surface parallel to flow. The computational results indicate that when subjected to uniform surface heat flux, the graded material system can eliminate through-thickness temperature gradients that are otherwise present in traditional thermal protection systems. Furthermore, graded material systems can also eliminate through-thickness temperature gradients and significantly reduce in-plane surface temperature gradients when subjected to non-uniform surface aerodynamic heating.