Nontuberculous mycobacteria can cause minimally symptomatic self-limiting infections to progressive and life-threatening disease of multiple organs. Several factors such as increased testing and prevalence have made this an emerging infectious disease. Multiple guidelines have been published to guide therapy, which remains difficult owing to the complexity of therapy, the potential for acquired resistance, the toxicity of treatment, and a high treatment failure rate. Given the long duration of therapy, complex multi-drug treatment regimens, and the risk of drug toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring is an excellent method to optimize treatment. However, currently, there is little available guidance on therapeutic drug monitoring for this condition. The aim of this review is to provide information on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets for individual drugs used in the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria disease. Lacking data from randomized controlled trials, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data were aggregated to facilitate recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)