Theory-Based Determinants of Youth Smoking: A Multiple Influence Approach

Scott C. Carvajal, Roberta A. Downing, Carrie Hanson, Karin K. Coyle, Linda L. Pederson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


This study tested a broad array of determinants of smoking grounded in general social psychological theories, as well as personality and social development theories. Using data from 2,004 middle school students, all proximal and distal determinants significantly predicted smoking in the hypothesized direction. Further, hierarchical logistic regressions showed that intention to smoke, positive and negative attitudes toward smoking, impediments to smoking, self-efficacy to resist smoking, parent norms, and academic success most strongly predicted current smoking. Hierarchical linear regressions suggested that parental relatedness, maladaptive coping strategies, depression, and low academic aspirations most strongly predicted susceptibility to smoking for those who had not yet smoked a cigarette. Global expectancies were the strongest predictor of susceptibility in low socioeconomic status students. These findings may guide the development of future theory-based interventions that produce the greatest reductions in youth smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-84
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Applied Social Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology


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